# 210. Course Schedule II 课程表 II

@TOC

## # 题目描述

There are a total of n courses you have to take, labeled from `0` to `n-1`.

Some courses may have prerequisites, for example to take course 0 you have to first take course 1, which is expressed as a pair: `[0,1]`

Given the total number of courses and a list of prerequisite pairs, return the ordering of courses you should take to finish all courses.

There may be multiple correct orders, you just need to return one of them. If it is impossible to finish all courses, return an empty array.

Example 1:

``````Input: 2, [[1,0]]
Output: [0,1]
Explanation: There are a total of 2 courses to take. To take course 1 you should have finished
course 0. So the correct course order is [0,1].
``````

Example 2:

``````Input: 4, [[1,0],[2,0],[3,1],[3,2]]
Output: [0,1,2,3] or [0,2,1,3]
Explanation: There are a total of 4 courses to take. To take course 3 you should have finished both
courses 1 and 2. Both courses 1 and 2 should be taken after you finished course 0.
So one correct course order is [0,1,2,3]. Another correct ordering is [0,2,1,3] .
``````

Note:

1. The input prerequisites is a graph represented by a list of edges, not adjacency matrices. Read more about how a graph is represented.
2. You may assume that there are no duplicate edges in the input prerequisites.

## # 解题方法

### # 拓扑排序，BFS

``````class Solution(object):
def findOrder(self, numCourses, prerequisites):
"""
:type numCourses: int
:type prerequisites: List[List[int]]
:rtype: List[int]
"""
graph = collections.defaultdict(list)
indegrees = collections.defaultdict(int)
for u, v in prerequisites:
graph[v].append(u)
indegrees[u] += 1
path = []
for i in range(numCourses):
zeroDegree = False
for j in range(numCourses):
if indegrees[j] == 0:
zeroDegree = True
break
if not zeroDegree:
return []
indegrees[j] -= 1
path.append(j)
for node in graph[j]:
indegrees[node] -= 1
return path
``````

### # 拓扑排序，DFS

findOrder函数中的for循环是怎么回事呢？这个和BFS循环次数不是同一个概念，这里的循环就是看从第i个节点开始能否到达合理结果。这个节点可能没有出度了，那就把它直接放到path里；也可能有出度，那么就把它后面的节点都进行一次遍历，如果满足条件的节点都放到path里，同时把这次遍历的所有节点都标记成了已经遍历；如果一个节点已经被安全的访问过，那么就放过它，继续遍历下个节点。

``````class Solution(object):
def findOrder(self, numCourses, prerequisites):
"""
:type numCourses: int
:type prerequisites: List[List[int]]
:rtype: List[int]
"""
graph = collections.defaultdict(list)
for u, v in prerequisites:
graph[u].append(v)
# 0 = Unknown, 1 = visiting, 2 = visited
visited = [0] * numCourses
path = []
for i in range(numCourses):
if not self.dfs(graph, visited, i, path):
return []
return path

def dfs(self, graph, visited, i, path):
if visited[i] == 1: return False
if visited[i] == 2: return True
visited[i] = 1
for j in graph[i]:
if not self.dfs(graph, visited, j, path):
return False
visited[i] = 2
path.append(i)
return True
``````

## # 参考资料

https://blog.csdn.net/fuxuemingzhu/article/details/82951771

## # 日期

2018 年 10 月 23 日 —— 刮风就是好，天朗气清，惠风和畅了